Wednesday, June 20, 2018

How to Formulate Poultry Feed

Poultry feed making is a highly profitable business venture. The food is essential for meat, egg production including the fast growth of the birds. There are things to consider before launching the enterprise.
You need equipment, factory location and source of raw materials. Other considerations are funding, labor and marketing the product. Knowledge of the ingredients, milling process, transportation and packaging is important.
To start first write a comprehensive business plan then carry out a feasibility study. Learn what your competitors are doing and focus o your customer demography. You need to carry out research, go for training and find appropriate land, equipment and funding.
Poultry Feed
Ingredient in Poultry Feed
Although the ingredient measurements differ per manufacturers the components are basically the same. The two major components are to provide energy and adequate protein. Nutritional requirements include fats, oils, protein and energy.
Energy is gotten from different types of cereal oils or fats. The protein sources are cereal by-products, different meal. The main protein sources are fish meal, field peas and cereal by- products. Others are bone meal, meat meal and canola.
The peas are harvest from temperate regions and available in different countries. Waste peas are the usual order however specific ones are grown to cater to the milling industry. Fish meal is derived from salmon, herring, Pollack, menhaden, tuna.
The extract from canola seed is the canola meal used in the feed milling process. Others are bone meal, meat meal or soybeans. Most producers use large quantities of soybeans in the mix.
Cereal meal is a derivative of wet and dry milling including industry waste. Top cereal by-products are gluten feed, middling, bran and grain hulls. Others are grain screenings, rice polishing, mill run, corn, hominy feed. More include wheat shorts, wheat red, barely malt sprouts.
Fats and Oil
Lipids are used in the manufacture process of feed. The fats and oil provide energy to the birds. Te lipids contain essential fatty acids, fat soluble vitamins and linoleic acid. The fast could be harvested from vegetable or animal sources. Vegetable sources are cotton seed oil, sunflower oil, palm oil, sunflower oil rapeseed oil. Animal sources are fish, lard tallow.
Poultry Feed Mill Ingredients
  • fish meal
  • field peas
  • cereal by- products
  • bone meal
  • meat meal
  • canola
  • canola meal
  • soybeans
  • gluten feed
  • middling
  • bran
  • grain hulls
  • grain screenings
  • rice polishing
  • mill run
  • corn
  • hominy feed
  • wheat shorts
  • wheat red
  • barely
  • malt sprouts
To formulate feed you need specialized equipment. The machinery could operate a feed pellet line or basic feed pellet machinery.
The equipment you need is feed pellets packaging machine and pellet making machine. Others are feed pellet cooling machine, storage bins, fire protection, dust collector and control cabinet.
Feed Mill Equipment
  • feed pellet line
  • basic feed pellet machinery
  • feed pellets packaging machine
  • feed pellet cooling machine
  • storage bins
  • fire protection
  • dust collector
  • control cabinet
Feed Mill Operations
To make poultry feed it must go through sourcing the product, receiving the raw materials and mixing. It then goes through pelletizing, cooling, sifting and packaging. The product is then stored or shipped to customers.
Feed Making Process
The factory receives the raw material in bulk. The material should consist of premixes, feed ingredients and molasses. The delivery system could be by truck, ship or rail system. Other ingredients are grains, liquid ingredients and fat.
In a line production system it goes through a conveyor system. The feed hammer mill then grinds the grains before mixing the ingredients together. Batching involves following a strict formula based on the type of feed you want to producer.
The three basic types are starter feed, grower feed and finisher feed. There is also layers feed for egg producers. The feed ingredients are weighed or batch scaled quantitatively. The scaling and quality measuring is done either automatically or manually.
The feed formula determines the batch mixing time for each ingredient. This process is carried out by the feed mixing machine. Once the ingredients are well blended they go into the pelleting machine.
The pelleting mill feeder controls the rate of ingredient delivery.  The conditioner mixes steam and dry mixed material to make wet mash. Then it is sent to the pelleting chamber through gravity or pressure to convert into pellet shape and size.
The cooling machine receives the hot feed pellets by gravity then proceeds to the screening machine for scalping. The final product is weighed, packaged and sealed. Then it proceeds to the warehouse or storage facility before onward delivery.
How Poultry feed is made
  • sourcing the raw materials
  • receiving the raw materials
  • grinding
  • batching
  • mixing
  • pelleting
  • cooling
  • sifting
  • packaging
  • warehousing
Broiler Finisher Feed Ingredients
Here is a list of broiler finisher feed ingredients to make 70kg bag. We have grower premix 10g, soya meal 3.4kg, lime 2kg, fish meal 3kg.
Others are wheat bran 10kg, wheat pollard 13.3kg, maize germ 16.7 kg and whole maize 10kg. More include zincbacitrach 5g, salt 5g, coccidiostat 5g, bone meal 40g. You have sunflower cake 4.7kg, cotton seed cake 6kg.
Broiler Finisher 70kg Bag
  • premix 10g
  • soya meal 3.4kg
  • lime 2kg
  • fish meal 3kg
  • wheat bran 10kg
  • wheat pollard 13.3kg
  • maize germ 16.7 kg
  • whole maize 10kg
  • zincbacitrach 5g
  • salt 5g
  • coccidiostat 5g
  • bone meal 40g
  • sunflower cake 4.7kg
  • cotton seed cake 6kg
Poultry Feed
Broiler Starter Feed
To make broiler starter feed for 1 to 4 weeks chicks you need lime 4kg, premix 70g. Others are whole maize 40kg, fishmeal 12kg, lysine 35g. More are threonine 35g, amino acids, soya bean meal 14kg.
Starter Feed for 1 to 4 weeks Chicks
  • lime 4kg
  • premix 70g
  • whole maize 40kg
  • fishmeal 12kg
  • lysine 35g
  • threonine 35g
  • amino acids
  • soya bean meal 14kg
Layer Mash
To make 70 kg layer mash for 18 weeks birds and older, you need fishmeal 8kg and whole maize 34kg. Other ingredients are soya 12kg, bran 10kg, premix 179g. More are toxin binder 50g, tryptophan 35g, threonine 70kg, lysine 70g.
Layer Feed for 18weeks/Older Birds
  • fishmeal 8kg
  • whole maize 34kg
  • soya 12kg
  • bran 10kg
  • premix 179g
  • toxin binder 50g
  • tryptophan 35g
  • threonine 70kg
  • lysine 70g
Ingredients for Grower Mash
The ingredient composition for grower mash for birds 4 weeks to 8 weeks are whole maize germ 17 kg, wheat pollard 13kg. You need fishmeal 3kg, bone meal 700g, lime 2.07kg, soya meal 3.4 kg.
More include sunflower cake 6kg, wheat bran 10kg. Popular additives are premix 18g, saly 14g, coccidiostat 1g, mycotoxin 7g and zinc bacitracitrach.
Grower Feed for 4 to 8 Weeks Chicken
  • whole maize germ 17 kg
  • wheat pollard 13kg
  • fishmeal 3kg
  • bone meal 700g
  • lime 2.07kg
  • soya meal 3.4 kg
  • sunflower cake 6kg
  • wheat bran
  • premix 18g
  • salt 14g
  • coccidiostat 1g
  • mycotoxin 7g
  • zinc bacitracitrach

Ingredient for Layer Chicks
The ingredient composition for layer chicks 1 to 4 weeks are wheat bran 9.1kg, whole maize 31.5kg. Others are sunflower 8kg, fishmeal 1.5kg, salt 30g.
More include wheat pollard 7.0kg, lime 1.75kg, premix 20g. We have toxin binder 50g, coccidiostat 60g, enzymes 50g, threonine 70g, lysine 3g, tryptophan 70g.
Layer Mash for 1 to 4 Weeks Chicks
  • wheat bran 9.1kg
  • whole maize 31.5kg
  • sunflower 8kg
  • fishmeal 1.5kg
  • salt 30g
  • wheat pollard 7.0kg
  • lime 1.75kg
  • premix 20g
  • toxin binder 50g
  • coccidiostat 60g
  • enzymes 50g
  • threonine 70g
  • lysine 3g
  • tryptophan 70g
Maintenance of Poultry Feed Milling Equipment
The maintenance of the equipment is essential for productivity. Proper maintenance increases efficiency, product quality and reduces contamination.
The maintenance could be routine, emergency or preventive. You can schedule routine maintenance of equipment every three weeks. This should include scheduled inspection, taking stock of inventory.
The demand is more than the supply in most countries. The market is readily available and easy to find. You can reach farmers through television adverts, radio and print.
Use flyers, posters, billboards and signboards. Use newspaper advertisement, word of mouth and discounts for large orders. You need a website, social media channels and directory submissions.

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Monday, June 18, 2018

How to Start a Commercial Goat Farm

Goat farming is lucrative and moderately challenging. Startup is low and the job is practicable from home. You can start with less than 4 animals and slowly expand.
However commercial farming requires specialized tools, knowledge and financial commitment. To start the business write a business plan and carry out a feasibility study. Here are ideas on how to start a goat farm.
Types of Goat
There are different breeds of goat around the world. They are bred for their milk, skin or meat. The breed you choose depends on your business template and focus.
Some are best for meat production while others are good milk producers. You have specialized meat goat breeds, kid productive breeds, mohair producing breeds and dairy breeds.
Goat Farm
Goat Breeds
  • Alpine
  • Angora
  • Argentata
  • Beetal
  • Boar
  • Bionda
  • Cashmere
  • Damascus
  • Don
  • Fainting
  • Irish
  • Jonica
  • Kamori
  • Kiko
  • Lamancha
  • Marwari
  • Oberhasli
  • Peacock
  • Pygora
  • Russian White
  • Pygmy
  • Sahelian
  • West African dwarf
  • Zalawadi
Determine Age, Gender of the Animal
You need to determine the age of your stock. You might decide to on bucks, does or kids.  Generally the bucks are kept in separate accommodation from the does. Then choose a goat breed appropriate for your desired farming.
Goat Products
The two main products from goats are meat and milk. Goat’s milk is delicious, wholesome and nutritious. The milk is used in many culinary dishes, baking and drinks.
It is easy to digest, clear white in color and manufactured into many products. It is also common in many beauty products, creams and lotions.
The meat is regarded as a delicacy in most African countries. Common goat products are cheese, milk, meat, butter, and yogurt. The goat’s leather is used to make bags, shoes or seats.
Goat Products
  • pets
  • Cheese
  • Milk
  • Meat
  • Butter
  • Yogurt
  • leather products
Find a Farming Location
Many countries have strict zoning provisions on farming. A commercial livestock farmer needs adequate forage space for the animals.
Best locations are rural areas or farm settlements. Make sure the area has adequate water and grass. The number of goats you keep would determine the plot size required.
Goat Farming Equipment
Gat farming equipment is specially designed to carry out specific functions. Some are ideal for housing, vaccination, foot trimming, drenching and shelter. There are also tools for confinement or feeding the goat kids.
There are many tools so the farmer needs to purchase those specific to their needs. Commonly used equipment is buckets, troughs, bells, collars, wooden feeders. Others are foot trimming, docking, castrating equipment, drenching and vaccinating syringes.
More are circular cradle, artificial milk feeders, hay rack, green fodder, and restriction barricades. You need goat linear concentrate of silage feeder, silage feeder, and combined feeder. Buy individual goat restrainer, restraining stand for sick goat, nipple and sprayer.
Equipment and Tools
  • buckets
  • troughs
  • bells
  • collars
  • wooden feeders
  • foot trimming
  • docking
  • castrating equipment
  • drenching
  • vaccinating syringes
  • circular cradle
  • artificial milk feeders
  • hay rack
  • green fodder
  • restriction barricades
  • goat linear concentrate of silage feeder
  • silage feeder
  • combined feeder
  • goat restrainer
  • restraining stand for sick goat
  • nipple
  • sprayer
Feed Formula for Goat
It is important to maintain a balanced diet for your animals. Make available clean drinking water and proper food storage facility. Goats eat lots of pasture plants like millet, grass, sorghum.
They love hay, grains and require vitamins and minerals. Some people feed them kitchen scrap a technique not suitable for commercial farming. Goats of different ages eat similar composition of food.
However the quantity per kg of each ingredient differs. The main ingredients in goat feed are maize, groundnut cake, wheat bran. Other ingredients include PKC, mineral mix and salt.
Sample feed formula for kid is the lamb starter. Lamb starter formula is 2.5kg mineral mix, 20kg wheat bran, 25 kg PKC, 37 kg Maize, 15kg groundnut cake, 0.5 kg salt. The formula for goat finisher is mineral mix 2kg, wheat offal 35kg, groundnut cake 37kg, salt 1kg and PKC 10kg.
Nursing goats eat a special formula to aid milk production. The formula for nursing goat feed is mineral mix 2kg, salt 1kg, wheat offal 37kg, PKC 8 kg, and maize 52 kg. The formula for a pregnant goat is slightly different the maize content is 35kg, mineral mix 2kg, salt 1kg, wheat offal 42kg PKC 20 kg.
How to Make Mineral Mix
To prepare a mineral mix you need 45% limestone, 22g iodized salt and 11g zinc oxide. Other ingredients that go into the composition are Sterilized bone meal 35%, ferrous carbonate 11g and copper sulphate 22g.
Lamb Starter Feed Formula
  • 2.5kg mineral mix
  • 20kg wheat bran
  • 25 kg PKC
  • 37 kg Maize
  • 15kg groundnut cake
  • 0.5 kg salt
Goat Finisher Feed Formula
  • mineral mix 2kg
  • wheat offal 35kg
  • groundnut cake 37kg
  • salt 1kg
  • PKC 10kg
Nursing Goat Feed Formula
  • mineral mix 2kg
  • salt 1kg
  • wheat offal 37kg
  • PKC 8 kg
  • maize 52 kg
Pregnant Goat Feed Formula
  • maize 35kg
  • mineral mix 2kg
  • salt 1kg
  • wheat offal 42kg
  • PKC 20 kg
Housing and Fencing for Goats
Goats are very rambunctious, athletic and curious. They have an uncanny ability to get out of any enclosure. To secure your goats you need sturdy fencing and housing facility. The housing should protect them from the heats, snow or wind.
Goat shelters have a basic roof to shade them from the sun. In extreme weather, house them in sold structure pens or buildings. The goat house should have bedding, water trough and plenty of straw. Make sure you remove poisonous plants from the enclosure
You can either build a temporary fence or permanent fence. This is applicable if your goats are allowed to roam the pasture. The fence provides a barrier from escape and keeps dangerous predators out.
The temporary fence could also keep bucks away from does. You can use high tensile wire, electric netting to build the fence. Six inch high tensile wire is also ideal for the construction of permanent fencing. You can introduce barbwire to the other side of the fence to deter predators.
General Practices
Farmers remove the horn stubs of young goats to prevent injury during fights. They also castrate young males and leave a few for breeding.
Does in heat are introduced to a buck for breeding programs. Once a does udder is enlarged farmers start milking them 2 weeks before date of delivery. Once delivered the goats are then milked daily.
Goat Diseases
The animal is resistant to many diseases. However intensive systems bring about different challenges. The types of disease they have are either caused by bacteria, virus or parasitical infection.
Symptoms are skin allergies, reduced growth diarrhea, anemia and fever. They sometimes suffer ocular discharge, lesions, udder swelling.
Bacteria diseases they encounter are foot rot, brucellosis, pneumonia. Viral diseases are goat pox, PPR, foot and mouth disease. Parasitical infections are round worm, fluke work and tape worm.
There is a huge market for goat products. You can sell meat, milk or hide to market women. Top customers are restaurants, hotels, butchery and frozen food outlets. Marketing is straightforward and you don’t need any elaborate strategy.

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